Irmfried Eberl was born the son of a commercial inspector in Bregenz, Austria, in 1910. Between 1928 and 1935, he studied medicine in Innsbruck and joined the Austrian NSDAP at the end of 1931. Since he found no government job in Austria because of his political convictions, he moved to Germany in 1936, where he worked as a doctor in several facilities and became a research fellow in the Main Health Office Berlin in 1937.
On 1 February 1940, he took over the management of the T4 killing institution of Brandenburg an der Havel and moved, with his entire staff, to the Bernburg killing centre in November 1940. Acting on his convictions, Eberl campaigned to improve the organisation of the »euthanasia» and collaborated on the planned »euthanasia« law. In the spring of 1942, he participated in the T4 staff's »Osteinsatz«, or Eastern Action, in the Soviet Union.
Subsequently, he participated, within the framework of »Aktion Reinhardt«, in the construction of Treblinka extermination camp and took over its management. In August, he was replaced as commandant due to the chaotic conditions in the camp.
After the war, Eberl, initially unchallenged, settled as a physician in Blaubeuren. Five weeks after he had been remanded in custody, he committed suicide on 16 February 1948.